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Land ownership

Natural resource ownership, governance, and revenues are closely tied to land ownership. Federal land represents 27.4% of all U.S. land, mostly concentrated in western states.

USEITI data covers production, revenue, and disbursements for federal lands and waters, as well as nationwide production and economic impact.

Production

The United States produces more natural gas and oil than any other country, and ranks second in the world for production of coal. The U.S. also ranks second in the world for renewable energy production, with a total of 9.56 quadrillion BTUs of renewable energy production in 2015.

Among nonenergy minerals, the U.S. ranks fifth in the world for production of gold (200 metric tons) and copper (1.25 million metric tons), and ninth for iron (56 million metric tons). Learn more about natural resource production in the U.S.

The Energy Information Administration collects data about all energy-related natural resources produced on federal, state, and privately owned lands and waters. This data does not include information about nonenergy mineral mining.
Data and documentation

Coal

0 short tons of coal were produced in 2016.

Hydroelectric

265,829,331 megawatt hours of hydroelectric energy were produced in 2016.

Crude oil

3,248,117,000 barrels of crude oil were produced in 2016.

Geothermal

17,416,928 megawatt hours of geothermal energy were produced in 2016.

Natural gas

32,647,385,000 mcf of natural gas were produced in 2016.

Other biomass

22,068,430 megawatt hours of other biomass energy were produced in 2016.

Solar

36,754,200 megawatt hours of solar energy were produced in 2016.

Wind

226,484,819 megawatt hours of wind energy were produced in 2016.

Wood-derived fuel

40,503,742 megawatt hours of wood-derived fuel energy were produced in 2016.

The Office of Natural Resources Revenue collects detailed data about natural resource production on federal lands and waters.
Data and documentation

Borate Products

161,433 tons of borate products were produced on federal land in 2015.

Brine Barrels

0 barrels of brine barrels were produced on federal land in 2015.

Brine Products

55,480 tons of brine products were produced on federal land in 2015.

Clay

51,791 tons of clay were produced on federal land in 2015.

Coal

375,560,873 tons of coal were produced on federal land in 2015.

Copper Concentrate

25,981 tons of copper concentrate were produced on federal land in 2015.

Gas

4,782,557,794 mcf of gas were produced on federal land in 2015.

Geothermal

281,998,685 million gallons of geothermal energy were produced on federal land in 2015.

Geothermal

19,439,305 hundred gallons of geothermal energy were produced on federal land in 2015.

Geothermal

170,924 million BTUs of geothermal energy were produced on federal land in 2015.

Geothermal

2,805,035,112 kilowatt hours of geothermal energy were produced on federal land in 2015.

Geothermal

666,434 units of geothermal energy were produced on federal land in 2015.

Geothermal

2,181,931,815 thousand pounds of geothermal energy were produced on federal land in 2015.

Geothermal

2,401 sulfur of geothermal energy were produced on federal land in 2015.

Gilsonite

16,078 tons of gilsonite were produced on federal land in 2015.

Gold and Silver Products

0 oz of gold and silver products were produced on federal land in 2015.

Hardrock Products

7,632 tons of hardrock products were produced on federal land in 2015.

Langbeinite

553,269 tons of langbeinite were produced on federal land in 2015.

Lead Concentrate

152,928 tons of lead concentrate were produced on federal land in 2015.

Muriate Of Potash-Granular

406,045 tons of muriate of potash-granular were produced on federal land in 2015.

Muriate Of Potash-Standard

55,777 tons of muriate of potash-standard were produced on federal land in 2015.

Oil

755,158,065 barrels of oil were produced on federal land in 2015.

Other Coal Products

9,375 tons of other coal products were produced on federal land in 2015.

Phosphate Raw Ore

4,950,170 tons of phosphate raw ore were produced on federal land in 2015.

Potash

21,201 tons of potash were produced on federal land in 2015.

Potassium Products

330,910 tons of potassium products were produced on federal land in 2015.

Purge Liquor

95,877 tons - equivalent of purge liquor were produced on federal land in 2015.

Quartz Crystal

4,701 tickets/pounds of quartz crystal were produced on federal land in 2015.

Salt

764,801 tons of salt were produced on federal land in 2015.

Soda Ash

5,690,058 tons of soda ash were produced on federal land in 2015.

Sodium Bi-Carbonate

292,402 tons of sodium bi-carbonate were produced on federal land in 2015.

Sodium Products

379,209 tons of sodium products were produced on federal land in 2015.

Zinc Concentrate

37,193 tons of zinc concentrate were produced on federal land in 2015.

Data withheld

Production volume was withheld for the following products:

Revenue

Companies pay a wide range of fees, rates, and taxes to extract natural resources in the United States. The types and amounts of payments differ, depending on who owns the natural resources.

Natural resource extraction can lead to federal revenue in two ways: non-tax revenue and tax revenue. Most USEITI data is about non-tax revenue from extractive industry activities on federal land.

When companies extract natural resources on federal lands and waters, they pay royalties, rents, bonuses, and other fees, much like they would to any landowner. This non-tax revenue is collected and reported by the Office of Natural Resources Revenue (ONRR).

For details about the laws and policies that govern how rights are awarded to companies and what they pay to extract natural resources on federal land: coal, oil and gas, renewable resources, and hardrock minerals.

The federal government collects different kinds of fees at each phase of natural resource extraction. This chart shows how much federal revenue ONRR collected in 2016 for production or potential production of natural resources on federal land, broken down by phase of production.
Data and documentation

Commodity 1. Securing rights 2. Before production 3. During production Other revenue
Oil and Gas
Oil & Gas
$4,293,316,801
$206,969,491 $156,667,913 Oil
$2,945,622,179
Gas
$774,392,172
NGL
$175,807,307
$33,857,739
Coal
Coal
$828,180,683
$312,097,368 $1,257,861 $511,604,134 $3,221,320
Geothermal
Geothermal
$13,356,892
$19,141 $1,427,938 $11,586,026 $323,788
Offshore renewable energy
Wind
$5,192,111
$1,886,955 $3,305,155 $0 $1
Other products
Carbon dioxide
$49,194,247
$0 $0 $49,194,247 $0
Sodium
$46,403,145
$424,121 ($17,567) $45,864,690 $131,899
Potassium
$10,767,405
$292,376 $28,226 $9,729,301 $717,502
Hardrock minerals
$7,739,432
$0 $31,676 $7,632,410 $75,347
Phosphate
$10,740,464
$0 $4,630 $10,589,317 $146,518
Sulfur
$223,844
$0 $0 $214,151 $2,727
Gilsonite
$1,424,528
$0 $1,309 $1,417,561 $5,658
Copper
$28,721
$0 $2,611 $0 $26,110
Clay
$930
$0 $0 $0 $930
Helium
$727
$0 $0 $727 $0
Gold
$2,604
$0 $651 $0 $1,953
Gemstones
$240
$0 $0 $0 $240
All commodities
All commodities
$5,323,669,179
$521,689,452 $162,711,655 $4,543,654,221 $95,613,850
* Includes revenues not tied to specific commo­dities ($54,047,456 in inspection fees, $2,888,730 in civil penalties, and $165,932 in other revenue).

Non-tax revenue collected by ONRR often depends on what resources are available on federal land, as well as the laws and regulations about extraction of each resource.
Data and documentation

All commodities

Companies paid $5,323,669,179 to produce all commodities on federal land in 2016.

Asphalt

Companies paid $0 to produce asphalt on federal land in 2016.

Carbon dioxide

Companies paid $49,194,247 to produce carbon dioxide on federal land in 2016.

Clay

Companies paid $930 to produce clay on federal land in 2016.

Coal

Companies paid $828,180,683 to produce coal on federal land in 2016.

Copper

Companies paid $28,721 to produce copper on federal land in 2016.

Gas

Companies paid $774,587,153 to produce gas on federal land in 2016.

Gemstones

Companies paid $240 to produce gemstones on federal land in 2016.

Geothermal

Companies paid $13,356,892 to produce geothermal on federal land in 2016.

Gilsonite

Companies paid $1,424,528 to produce gilsonite on federal land in 2016.

Gold

Companies paid $2,604 to produce gold on federal land in 2016.

Hardrock minerals

Companies paid $7,739,432 to produce hardrock minerals on federal land in 2016.

Helium

Companies paid $727 to produce helium on federal land in 2016.

Limestone

Companies paid $0 to produce limestone on federal land in 2016.

Natural gas liquids

Companies paid $175,818,653 to produce natural gas liquids on federal land in 2016.

Non-commodity revenue

Companies paid $57,102,118 in inspection fees, civil penalties, and other revenues in 2016.

Oil

Companies paid $2,947,777,572 to produce oil on federal land in 2016.

Oil & Gas (Non-Royalty)

Companies paid $395,133,423 to produce oil & gas (non-royalty) on federal land in 2016.

Oil Shale

Companies paid $1,252 to produce oil shale on federal land in 2016.

Phosphate

Companies paid $10,740,464 to produce phosphate on federal land in 2016.

Potassium

Companies paid $10,767,405 to produce potassium on federal land in 2016.

Sand & Gravel

Companies paid $0 to produce sand & gravel on federal land in 2016.

Sodium

Companies paid $46,403,145 to produce sodium on federal land in 2016.

Sulfur

Companies paid $216,878 to produce sulfur on federal land in 2016.

Tar Sands

Companies paid $0 to produce tar sands on federal land in 2016.

Wind

Companies paid $5,192,111 to produce wind on federal land in 2016.

Individuals and corporations (specifically C-corporations) pay income taxes to the IRS. Depending on company income, federal corporate income tax rates can range from 15–35%. Public policy provisions, such as tax expenditures, can decrease corporate income tax and other revenue payments in order to romote other policy goals.

Learn more about revenue from extraction on all lands and waters.

Federal disbursements

After collecting revenue from natural resource extraction, the Office of Natural Resources Revenue (ONRR) distributes that money to different agencies, funds, and local governments for public use. This process is called “disbursement.” In 2016, ONRR disbursed a total of $6,233,535,083.

Data and documentation

Disbursements by fund for 2016

Fund All funds From onshore revenue From offshore revenue
General Fund of the Treasury
The federal government’s basic operating fund pays for roughly two-thirds of all federal expenditures, including the military, national parks, and schools.
$2,202,970,198 $336,570,856 $1,866,399,341
States
Funds disbursed to states fall under the jurisdiction of each state, and each state determines how the funds will be used.
$1,327,198,668 $1,316,110,458 $11,088,210
Reclamation fund
Supports the establishment of critical infrastructure projects like dams and power plants.
$1,009,078,895 $1,009,078,895 $0
Land and Water Conservation Fund
Provides matching grants to states and local governments to buy and develop public outdoor recreation areas across the 50 states. See below for more information about this fund.
$883,970,477 $0 $883,970,477
American Indian tribes
ONRR disburses 100% of revenue collected from resource extraction on American Indian lands back to the Indian tribes and individual Indian landowners.
$560,416,155 $560,416,155 $0
Other funds
Some funds are directed back to federal agencies that administer these lands to help cover operational costs. The Ultra-Deepwater Research Program and the Mescal Settlement Agreement also receive $50 million each.
$249,900,691 $91,256,205 $158,644,486

Land and Water Conservation Fund

ONRR disburses revenue to the Land and Water Conservation Fund (LWCF) according to federal law. However, these funds are subject to congressional appropriations. Some of the money disbursed from ONRR to the fund is spent on LWCF projects, but some of it ultimately goes to other expenditures. The fund is authorized to receive and disburse $900 million each year, but congressional appropriations to LWCF projects have been limited to between $149 million and $573 million each year since 1999.

To see how much was disbursed to states, sub-funds, and other projects each year, see the following datasets:

Historic Preservation Fund

Like the LWCF, money in the Historic Preservation Fund is subject to congressional appropriations. Some of it is spent on historic preservation projects, but some of it ultimately goes to other expenditures. The fund is authorized to receive and disburse $150 million each year, but annual appropriations have declined from $94 million to less than $60 million since 2001.

To see how much was disbursed to each state for preservation projects (including Hurricane Sandy recovery funds), see Historic Preservation grants, 2011-2014 (TSV).

Economic impact

USEITI economic impact data covers gross domestic product and two different types of jobs data.

To learn more about direct energy employment across all sectors of the U.S. economy, another useful resource is 2017 U.S. Energy and Employment Report from the Department of Energy.

Data about gross domestic product comes from the Bureau of Economic Analysis.
Data and documentation

GDP (dollars)

In 2015, extractive industries accounted for $327,796,000,000, or 1.8% of GDP.

Wage and salary data, from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, describes the number of people employed in natural resource extraction that receive wages or salaries from companies.
Data and documentation

Wage and salary jobs

In 2015, there were jobs in the extractive industries, and they accounted for <1% of nationwide jobs.

Self-employment data, from the Bureau of Economic Analysis, describes people who work in natural resource extraction, but don't receive wages or salaries because they own their own companies.
Data and documentation

Self-employment

In 2014, there were 0 self-employed people working in the extractive industries.